Details of his trip were released on Monday.
Vescovo and his team, in a submersible built to handle the pressure of the deep ocean, made five dives to the bottom of the trench.
They also discovered brightly colored rocky outcrops that were possibly created by microbes on the seabed, according to the BBC.
It was the third time humans have dived to the deepest point in the ocean, known as Challenger Deep.
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Vescovo hoped his discovery of trash in the Mariana Trench would raise awareness about dumping in the oceans and pressure governments to better enforce existing regulations, or put new ones in place.
His voyage, in a submersible named The Limiting Factor, is part of a landmark odyssey into the world's watery depths that's being filmed for Discovery Channel - dubbed the Five Deeps Expedition.
"Honestly, toward the end, I simply turned the thrusters off, leaned back in the cockpit and enjoyed a tuna fish sandwich while I very slowly drifted just above the bottom of the deepest place on Earth, enjoying the view and appreciating what the team had done technically", Vescovo said.
The only two other people to reach these depths was in 2012 by filmmaker James Cameron in his submersible, the Deepsea Challenger, and Lieutenant Don Walsh and Swiss scientist Jacques Piccard of the US Navy in the Trieste a deep submarine in 1960. They reportedly discovered human-made objects on the ocean's floor, like plastic objects and angular metals, and undiscovered marine species.
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Victor Vescovo spent four hours exploring the bottom of the trench. "Most importantly we have opened the door to the final frontier-the exploration of the hadal zone and the workings of the deepest parts of the world's oceans", said Rob McCallum of EYOS Expeditions, whose company is managing the expedition.
Tests by Newcastle University researchers found that sea creatures living in the deepest reaches of the sea had fragments of plastic in their stomachs and muscles.
These conditions also made it challenging to capture footage - the Five Deeps expedition has been followed by Atlantic Productions for a documentary for the Discovery Channel. Once he finishes his last dive in August, he will be the only person to ever summit the highest mountain on each continent and go to the lowest point of each ocean.
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